Light & Color Theory of the Magnetic Spectrum
We live in a day and age of interesting contrasts. We are surrounded by incredibly high technology, yet most do not comprehend how it functions. You are reading this on a screen that accurately reproduces light and color in a way that can be nearly photorealistic, so clearly we as a civilization understand the principles of light and color, right? Well, "we" absolutely do have a working knowledge and faith in our measurements, but how clear is our foundational understanding? What process is at the very heart of our perception of color?
Still to this day, theories and debates regarding the base nature of light and color abound. It is a tale as old as time. Color theories existed in all cultures as it is a prime metaphysical and scientific question at the heart of the human experience. Many luminaries have provided inspiring explanations that would guide all thoughts on the subject to follow. Isaac Newton had his, Goethe had his, Walter Russell had his... (somehow James Clerk Maxwell is often overlooked for his brilliant color theory) the list goes on. Who was right? Has anyone provided a physically consistent, logically sound, scientifically correspondent answer to the question “what is light?” “What is the base cause of its colors?”
In approaching this question, I will look for validation on several different levels. First off, how does light behave with a prism and through all manner of optics? What are the measured values of the various colors within the electromagnetic spectrum? How does color and the process of refraction correspond to the axioms of harmonic ratio and music theory? How does light and refraction correspond to the principles of magnetism and the energy fields?
Lights Optical Behavior with the Prism:
Prism- a piece of polished transparent glass with an angle between at least two surfaces.
Refraction- the fact or phenomenon of light, radio waves, etc., being deflected in passing obliquely through the interface between one medium and another, or through a medium of varying density.
Spectrum- an array of entities, as light waves or particles, ordered in accordance with the magnitudes of a common physical property, as wavelength or mass: often the band of colors produced when sunlight is passed through a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
Emission- the production and discharge of something, especially gas or radiation.
Absorption- the removal of energy from a beam by the medium through which the beam propagates.
It was the refraction of light through a prism which first led Newton to realize white light was seemingly composed of 7 discernible colors. Much has been written about this so I will spare the full details of his theories regarding this process. Newton contributed much, but missed out on identifying many operational characteristics (he more or less figured light was a linear process.) Over 100 years later, Goethe remedied some of Newton’s oversights with the keen observations that disparate rays blended with each other to create further orders of color, and that color behaved differently when refracted light was being emitted as opposed to when refracted light was being absorbed. It is not a linear process, it is compression and rarefication, as dependent upon darkness as light itself, and in a way, full circle. This is what is typically described as additive and subtractive color.
White light fans out in a linear fashion due to increasing
refraction angle as wavelength decreases.
Goethe observed distinguishable ray bands and their interplay
with light and darkness and the results of their blending with one another.
The Newtonian and Goetheian models seem as if to be incompatible and at odds with one another (Goethe actually vehemently decried Newton's explanation throughout his life) but in my view both understandings have important and relevant interpretations and ingenious observations regarding the nature of electromagnetic refraction. Neither however is totally accurate, both have myriad inconsistencies. Both are leaving out key factors, understandings and measurable observations. As much as I would love to devote more time to these other individuals and their famous intellectual rivalry, a full critique of their work would be a book unto itself. I would prefer to move well beyond critiques. Here of course is where I should provide you with some resources to study Newton and Goethe further. Ok, here you are: www.google.com ;)
So what is really happening?
When you shine emitted white light through a prism of optical glass, the electromagnetic radiation we perceive as light deflects from its original incoming angle. This is the result of the electromagnetic wavelengths passing through a medium more dense than the air and striking at least two different angles on its way in and out. This process is known as refraction. Visible light is a range of electromagnetic wavelengths rather than any single one wavelength and the process of refraction is more extreme for smaller wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. This wavelength dependency of refraction results in the dispersion of what we perceive as the white light into the wavelengths that compose it, which we perceive as separate individual colors.
In the process of white light being emitted through a prism, 3 primary wavelengths of color result. These are red, green and blue. When all three of these primary color rays are blended into the same space we perceive white light. When two of these primaries are blended into different combinations, they form the secondary colors of yellow, magenta and cyan. (Note, magenta is not typically visible from the output of a prism because the blue and red rays are not able to mix due to the green ray naturally presiding between them. Magenta is however able to be seen by looking through a prism at shadows, more on this below. It is also capable of being generated by manually mixing the corresponding wavelengths, as can be demonstrated by a television set, or a special prism arrangement.) The process of color mixture blends further in different ratios from there into the total spectrum of all possible configurations of color.
Above are actual images of mine of white light refracting through a prism. Be sure to browse the gallery. Notice how the color green is not visible in the spectrum until the white light ceases. This is due to the red and blue ray bands which are refracting in opposite directions from the same original surface having finally separated from the central green ray. Up until this point, all 3 primary colors are blending, resulting in white light.
(At distances far enough away from the refracting source, or through a special prism arrangement, only the 3 primary colors will be visible once the rays are no longer in close enough proximity to blend with one another, resulting in secondary colors no longer being visible. This Xcube prism of mine separates the 3 primary rays at 90 degrees from one another. Green is always parallel to the incoming white light. Watch video here )
A photograph of white lines and text refracting. When looking through the prism with your eyes, the lines are fine enough that the image appears as 3 independent images of a red, green and blue hue hovering apart. Where they barely overlap is where the camera picks up yellow and cyan.
When you stare at a shadow surrounded by light while looking through a prism however, the color relationship is exactly reversed. Here the primary colors appear to be Yellow, Magenta and Cyan which seemingly combine to form secondary subtractive colors of Red, green and Blue- the color mixture goes on from there. This is subtractive color. What is happening in subtractive color is the subtraction from white light. For instance, cyan is the subtraction of red from white. Yellow is the subtraction of blue from white and magenta is the subtraction of green from white. The "secondary colors" in the subtractive color process are thus the subtraction/ absorption/ negation of 2 primary colors from white. Red would be the subtraction of green and blue. Blue would result from the subtraction of red and green. Green would result from the subtraction of blue and red from white.
So just as projected light entering and exiting a prism is refracted into 3 primary rays, the same seems to go for shadows. Of course a shadow is simply the absence of light, and you cannot bend something that is not there, so it is actually the present light which defines this shadow, which is refracting in the image.
(An example of subtractive/ absorbed light in my photograph of a setting sun as seen through a prism. Note the tree which is a shadow absorbing the light of the setting sun which surrounds it. The shadow of absorption also refracts into three primary directions resulting in the cyan, yellow and magenta bands of color. See more in my gallery below.)
Here, dark lines and text refract upon a white background. 3 independant colored images appear, this time cyan, magenta and yellow. Note magenta is in the middle.
Another example of subtractive/ absorbed light is the result of the process you are perceiving when you look at a colored object. A red ball for instance appears red because the blue and green color wavelengths are being absorbed by the magnetic geometry of the atomic structure composing the object while the red wavelengths are free to reflect.
The relationship between these two sets of 3 primary colors is well understood in this day and age. All emitted colors and saturations possible exist as different ratios of blends between the 3 primary colors of emission (look closely at your screen you are reading this on and you will see its image is composed of nothing but red, green and blue lights.) All absorbed colors (colors that reflect off of surfaces or filter through the atomic matrices of matter which we then perceive to have color, such as a red apple or colored glass) exist as different ratios and blends of the subtractive primaries, which are a result of the negation of a primary color from white. While we differentiate the two as separate processes, additive and subtractive color is truly one and the same. Ultimately you perceive the colors that are present for your perception, and that depends entirely upon which combinations of primary colors are available to resonate with your eyes.
A Quick Note on Violet:
You may notice that both Goethe and Newton describe violet as a final color emitted from the prism. In some of his plates, it even appears that Goethe comprehended violet essentially as a primary color, giving it its own ray. This is an error, and it is one that has caused much confusion throughout time. Indeed if you look at colored light emitted from a prism, violet does often appear at the tail end beyond blue. I have made many careful observations of this phenomenon. When one observes the sun through a prism, the sphere of the sun is last visible at blue. Beyond this it is outside of view. Place your eye in what is the violet light and observe the prism. You will see the sun itself as pure blue even in this light. The light which is making its way through the prism to emerge as violet is actually from the illuminated aura of the environment surrounding the sun, or whatever the light source. This light of the aura is indirect primary sunlight refracted off of matter in the atmosphere elsewhere and then striking the prism at different angles than the primary source. It appears that the prism is taking this already refracted light and refracting it even further, or allowing a portion of the aura's redshift to blend with the blueshift of the primary light, due to arriving to the prism from different angles of incidence. We can prove violet is not a primary color by creating the color in the mixture of the lights of the primaries. One may not create emitted blue, red or green light by mixing other emitted colors.
Overview of Color Mixing:
(This chart is a final overview of color logic, down to the secondary colors.
Black is the absence of all 3 primaries, white is the presence of all 3 primaries. With the black background (absence of RGB,) the presence of any one emitted primary will result in that primary alone. So red upon black is simply red. Red plus green is thus yellow. This is additive color.
From a white background (presence of RGB,) the primaries are subtracted (absorbed) towards the black shadow. Notice in the top right of the chart, blue = (white (RGB) minus red,) minus (white (RGB) minus green.) Thus subtracting green and red from white (RGB) leaves you with blue. This is subtractive color.
Ultimately the color you perceive exists solely upon the ratios of the primary colors which are present. This is color logic, but not an answer to what color or light is in truth. Next we must ask what these primary colors truly are in terms of energy fields.)
Many special prisms went into this ongoing research project of mine. Here a prism displays the correspondence of the middle colors of additive and subtractive light. Green being the negation of red and blue retaining green, magenta being the negation of green, retaining red and blue. When these two rays are combined, we have red, green and blue present and white light is retained. Here are some video demonstrations of this prism of mine:
Magenta and green combinations - RGB
The key observations here to note is that the light is being refracted into 3 primary rays in each instance. The 3 primary colors we perceive as red, green and blue are the base components of all color possibilities, whether additive or subtractive. Another key observation is that the center color for emitted light is green and the center color of absorbed light is magenta (the negation of middle green.) The big question for all should be WHY 3? Also, what are these 3 core components of light (and thus electromagnetic radiation) really? What is it exactly that these 3 primary colors represent, which controls and manages all forms of energy?
Why are there 3 Primary Colors/ Angles of Refraction in electromagnetic radiation?
Well... that question has been one for the mystics since time immemorial ;) Every person must answer this for themselves ultimately. I will say that entire religions have been anthropomorphized upon this subject matter in an attempt to answer this for you, since time immemorial, over and over again!
There are some important key characteristics and observations I will discuss from here though, all of which center upon the most important work of Jon DePew regarding magnetism. >>www.coralcastlecode.com<<
Image credit- Jon DePew www.coralcastlecode.com
Jon DePew's work (and others such as Edward Leedskalnin before him) proved through physical experiments and geometric reasoning, that magnetism and all its possible energy field arrangements (which are ultimately functions of magnetism) are composed of 3 irreducible base components. Jon often describes these as the "two opposing magnetic currents and the neutral particles of matter." Ultimately, he is talking about the base triangulation/ polarization of dimension into positive, negative and neutral. This simple premise quickly evolves into the deepest thread of interconnected logic concerning the co-definitive relationship between particles of matter and the energy fields, which is far beyond the scope of this writing, much less my authority or ability to effectively cover it, but I will attempt to summarize some key points that relate most specifically to this article's exploration of color and light so that we may move on from here with necessary context. This may be the most complex section of this article for those unfamiliar with electromagnetic theory, but this can be understood by everybody with some familiarization, do not be discouraged.
What is important to understand is that light itself as "electromagnetism" IS magnetism. The ELECTRO in electromagnetism as I understand it, is essentially simply referring to the fact that the magnetic field is alternating/ rotating/ orbiting at a relative frequency and can induce relative motion among its own continuum. (Do not think of a magnetic field as something that ever ends. Every atom/ particle of matter is sustained and connected via magnetic field to every other in the universe as an alternating and neutralizing continuum.) The prime mover of magnetic field alternation and polar interchange is not electricity as an independent force, but the requirement of the dynamic universal magnetic field to redistribute relative inertia (induce motion) and polar orientation in order to maintain magnetic equilibrium. There is a relative magnetic pressure (electromotive force, aka voltage) in what we consider a "positive electrically charged" object and its field and a "negatively charged" object and its field, with potential to induce motion and redistribute polarity through resistance, relative to the base inertia of the static dominant magnetic field (that of the Earth and solar system for instance) as a function of pressure mediation in circuit. This is true for gravity and all other characterizations of force. There are no separate forces, they are all behaviors of the same base magnetic system that is required of dimension for the same purposes the golden ratio of Phi is required of dimension (Phi is the ratio of 1 to itself) and at least a triangulation of vectors is necessary to define a point in space and time or give a sphere its dimension.
It is no coincidence that electromagnetic waves are traditionally represented with a triangulation of dimensional qualities signified by the 3 primary colors. In the standard diagrams of electromagnetic waves, 2 linear waves are oriented to each other at 90 degrees along an axis and a spiral may be traced to unify their alternating vectors through time. Ultimately this triple relationship may be represented at any point in time by a right angled triangle (which should bring to light a most compelling function of the Pythagorean Theorem.) The opposite and adjacent vectors at 90 degrees are traditionally distinguished as the electric and magnetic waves, to which we must say the hypotenuse would signify the path of no resistance between the 2 as angular momentum. We must disagree however that the right angled phase relationship should be distinguished as electricity and magnetism separately. Truly this is simply a manifestation of dimensionally requisite polarity. Is the input force upon a gyroscope electricity to the magnetism of the output force at 90 degrees, or is this simply another manifestation of dimensionally requisite polarity distribution? In what position are you most stable in regards to gravity, at right angles such as standing perpendicular or lying parallel to the ground, or at any other angle in between these? (Good luck trying to remain standing at anything other than multiples of 90 degrees.)
Altogether, these 3 base factors of every possible wave are the base necessities of all dimensional logic, for endless reasons. They are critical to the dimensional solutions of both the particle of mass and the magnetic energy field, which will be the subjects of future publications.
The white light which we find to have 3 core indivisible components in its primary colors of red, green and blue, is an effect of perception of the very same truth of an electromagnetic wave being composed of a triangulation of positive, negative and neutral axes of relative dimensional orientation and pressure. Not only this, it is a result of the process of magnetic induction and magnetic resonance, whose value is ultimately Phi (the "Golden Ratio.") This is a key discovery of Jon DePew. The whole universal magnetic continuum is reducible to a dimensional triangulation, neutralizing/ balancing at the Phi ratio, always.
We will find this truth on display in the measurement of light!
So as an overview of the key takeaways of our brief foray into magnetism:
-There are 3 magnetic axes at the heart of every field of energy and particle of matter, or given segment of dimension. These correspond to the following, and much more:
Positive, neutral and negative in the broadest sense.
Micro scale, you, macro scale.
X,Y,Z axes - the 3 dimensions.
Electric (yaw) axis, magnetic (pitch) axis, angular momentum (roll axis.)
Longitudinal waves, transverse waves, helical waves
Toroidal field, poloidal field, resultant field
Positive curvature, no curvature, negative curvature. ( http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/universe_geometry.gif )
Right angles and their hypotenuse. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythagorean_theorem )( http://www.sricf-ca.org/paper1.htm )
North and south pole magnetic currents and their neutral partitions.
The opposing ends of a sphere and their neutral partitions such as the equator, rotational axis, processional axis and the boundary condition at the hemisphere of sight.
Right handed chirality, neutral chirality (no curvature) and left handed chirality. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chirality_(electromagnetism) )
Counter clockwise, static, clockwise rotation/ spin.
Rotational axis, input axis and output axis of a gyroscope.
Positive, negative and neutral coriolis forces. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis_force )
Increasing cold/ decreasing heat, average temperature, increasing heat/ decreasing cold.
The Doppler Effect. Incoming compressing energy, moment of fundamental tone, outgoing expanding energy. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doppler_effect )
3 Phase alternating current. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-phase_electric_power )
As colors, these magnetic axes literally correspond to Red, Green and Blue.
My image of white light being refracted radially into the primary colors.
Magnetic Polarization of the "Fundamental Tone"
(Optics) a state, or the production of a state, in which rays of light or similar radiation exhibit different properties in different directions. Compare circular polarization, elliptical polarization, plane polarization.
-a vector quantity indicating the electric dipole moment per unit of volume of a dielectric
-the induction of polarity in a ferromagnetic substance. -the production or acquisition of polarity. (In most of my references to polarization, I will simply be referencing this definition.)
Tonic / Fundamental Tone:
(Music) the first degree of the scale; the keynote; the fundamental tone.
Two notes, one having twice or half the frequency of vibration and wavelength of the other.
To begin, above is in my opinion one of the most important and fundamental geometric relationships that exists. Consider that the triangle is the most simple polygon possible and the first to "contain space." If one draws one triangle within another with edges touching surface as above, the side lengths and the circumscribed/ inscribed circles give us the doubling/ halving/ octave ratio exactly. Continuing the lines of the inner triangle to unite the inscribed and circumscribed circles, we find the golden ratio of phi and 1/phi. This most simple geometric relationship describes how phi is inherent within the triangulation of the fundamental tonic and octave relationship, which ultimately concerns every piece of subject matter within this article.
Here is a diagram detailing an actual experiment of mine which proves the magnetic triangulation at the heart of color logic. A magnet is held to a cathode ray tube that is set to project a chromatic scale of colors. Each color projected was found to be polarized at a constant ratio by the magnet, unveiling both the otherwise invisible geometry of a magnetic field, as well as its consistent polarizing effect upon fundamental wavelength and frequency (aka, the color that was being projected onto a screen.)
We find that the magnetic field literally equilaterally triangulates the projected colors. If either red, green or blue is projected, the other two primaries will appear when the magnet polarizes the screen. If one of the secondary colors, yellow, cyan or magenta are projected, the other 2 secondaries will appear when the screen is polarized, and so forth.
Above is a graph with the colors accurately distributed in a linear logic. Red, green and blue are equal thirds apart. A 3 phase sine wave upon this graph effectively describes the ratios of color mixing within the spectrum. From here, the graph may be projected full circle into a color wheel. The 3 phase sine wave now appears as three circles. One could literally draw an equilateral triangle onto this color wheel and have an understanding of the base function of magnetic triangulation manifesting as polarity.
This method is equally effective at mapping musical logic as it is at mapping color logic. The circle may represent the octave, or more precisely, the escape from and return to the fundamental through all its ratios of disassociation away from the fundamental. This is a 2 dimensional representation, so we are essentially equalizing the infinitely ascending and descending octaves of each note into a single concept of that note as a position upon the circumference of an evenly divided circle of 12 divisions.
If red at the top of the circle were a tonic/ fundamental note, like middle C, you could strike every possible other note that exists by placing yourself elsewhere along the circle/ spectrum, to return to the fundamental again at red, at the point of its octave.
But again, the octave and the fundamental, while carrying the same tonal quality do not carry the same size and scale, it is either doubled or halved at this point. So what is being effectively represented by this linear graph is actually a process of diminishing or expanding scale.
So what happens when you divide this circle/ whole/ octave by 3, as a magnet does? In the linear respect, you get 33.333..% and 66.666% and 100% (1/3, 2/3 and 1.) In actuality, you get PHI.
If one were to divide this color wheel into 12 equal segments as a chromatic scale does (think piano keys or guitar frets) the equilateral triangulation would correspond to the tonic, the major 3rd and the minor 6th intervals. The minor 6th is the ratio 8:5 which is literally the first approximation of the golden ratio with whole numbers. The minor 6th and major 3rd are both approximations of the golden ratio of phi from the fundamental if you consider both ascending and descending directions of movement within the scale. If one were traveling left from middle C on a keyboard, the Ab would be two whole steps (4 half steps) away. If you were traveling right on the keyboard, it would be 4 whole steps (8 half steps) away. And alternatively, if you were traveling right on a keyboard form middle C, E would be 2 whole steps away, as opposed to 4 whole steps away if traveling left. This equilateral triangulation of the octave contains the inherent value of PHI, the ratio of 1 to itself!
The equal triangulation of 1 gets you 3 even 3rds. The equal triangulation of the full spectrum of the octave gets you Phi. What is more is that our decimal number system was born to compute these both towards infinite resolution! The decimal value for 1/3rd is 33.333% The 3's never end in the decimal. The value for 2/3rds is 66.666% and the 6's never end. When added together, the 99.999% is 10 at infinite resolution. If we were to take the ratio for the Major 3rd with it's intervallic value of 4:3, its decimal value would be 1.333. This is a 3rd of an octave. If we were to take this value in the context of the octave and divided it by 2, we would get .666 (which is 2/3rds.) Or if we divided by 1/2, we would get 2.666. You can see the 6ths and 3rds are uniquely retained and inherently related in the base 10/ decimal system. I find this, along with the fact that base 10 can calculate phi and retain the same repeating decimal values to be among the principle reasonings for the ancient and near global use of the base 10 number system. Just as a 5 sided pentagram is built of phi proportions, and a 10 sided shape may map and tile the Phi ratio throughout space, base 10 can do the same for number.
Of course there is more than 1 minor 6th interval. Beyond 8:5, we find subsequent ratios taken of the Fibonacci series to also be Minor 6ths. These converge at infinite resolution at Φ:1, which is referred to as the "Harmonic 6th."
Here we have a great chart by Dale Pond of the Pond Science Institute that helps explain this concept.
So in knowing how geometry behaves, I divided this triangulated circle into the most basic semicircle based waveform and found the ratios between the triangulated points to literally be Phi. Geometry is happy to teach us of the one great miracle ;)
3 Axis Counter Rotation in Stretching
The concept of dividing the fundamental into 3 fundamental axes to derive the golden ratio is subtle and far reaching throughout mathematics. To speak it in a sentence in such a broad fashion is to insinuate endless direct mathematical examples which may be realized. One of these is to be found in the mathematics of stretching, and this carries a powerful analogy to energy, time, timing and spacing itself.
Below is a diagram of a stretching device that incorporates 3 arms which alternate on 2 counter-rotating wheels. If this devise were used to stretch a volume of material (such as taffy), it would do so tending towards the ratio of Phi by progressing through the Fibonacci sequence through successive rotations!If the original volume where considered the “fundamental tone” or original time and space value, it would increase its length and reduce its volume at the ratio of phi, while retaining its original total volume. This is a perfect example of the principles of inertial polarization and the behavior of its timing and spacing!
Above is an image from a research paper titled "The Mathematics of Taffy Pullers" by Jean-Luc Thiffeault. The image describes a device which stretches a volume at the golden ratio. Notice the similarity with my preceding diagram.
Here is a 3d model of the device in action. A perfect mechanical analogy of 3 magnetic axes between two equal and opposite polar (counter-rotating) forces.
Another core component of music theory is the correspondence between intervallic ratios (like the relative length of strings producing notes at different ratios) and beat ratios. A drummer drumming to a 3:2 beat while another plays a 1:1 beat is essentially matching the vibrational patterns of a pianist playing a tonic and perfect fifth note. As a matter of fact, if one were to increase the speed of the drum beat to the same frequency as the piano notes being played, the 1:1 and 2:3 notes would play the same chord tones as the piano! Rhythm becomes pitch, different pitches have rhythm, they are one in the same. Here is an example if this principle.
Of course, light and color operate on the same harmonic/ mathematical principles as sound. While sound is operating in the hundreds of vibrations per second, visible light and color is operating in the hundreds of trillions of vibrations a second. The ratio correspondences of perceived color are like the beats as pitches in the example above. Red, green and blue colors are the perceived effect of the extremely fine texture of these ratios of electromagnetic waves. The secondary colors and onward that result by the blending of any of these primary colors at different ratios correspond to the textural patterns of different notes being played at once and forced to be processed by your eyes and brain together. All perceptions are ultimately different textures of magnetic interactions.
Here we have an example of the simplest ratio reductions to fit into space, using a plane of triangles, as well as their color correspondences. A ratio of 8:5 for instance would mean two different triangles that would fill the same space at a ratio of 8 to 5. 8 smaller triangles would fit into 5 larger triangles. With the octave ratio involved (halving or doubling) these ratios can be reduced to display even more mathematical symmetry. Ultimately, you can see how these ratios produce different patterns and textures. This is very similar to what is happening at the very fine scales of light when you perceive color. I am not suggesting the above ratios are the exact of the primary colors of light, but a useful example for now.
Lets apply some measurement and see if we may find more validation within the published and standardized measurements of color.
Light is a range of electromagnetic radiation (a magnetic wave) that is resonant with our eyes and our visual processing functions of our brains. As with any wave, light is measured by the inverse relationship of wavelength and frequency. The shorter the wavelength is, the more frequent its alternations will be within a second of time. The longer a wavelength is, the less frequent its alternations will be. In the case of visible light, the magnetic waves will alternate between approximately 425,000,000,000,000 and 768,000,000,000,000 times a second. We use Terahertz (1 THz= 1 trillion vibrations a second) for ease of discussion. What this range of alternations per second (time) corresponds to as far as meters (space) goes, is .000,